Friday, May 22, 2020

Challenging Roles Of Nurses. Kelsey Wilkerson. Jackson...

Challenging Roles of Nurses Kelsey Wilkerson Jackson State Community College Challenging Roles of Nurses â€Å"Constant attention by a good nurse may be just as important as a major operation by a surgeon.† Dag Hammarskjold sums up all of healthcare in this simple statement. The care given by a nurse can aid in healing, or cause major damage. In every different setting that we find nurses, the roles they fulfill are very demanding. While nursing care is the same in the basics, every department has different demands placed on nurses. We are going to look at the differences and similarities of the role nurses play in the emergency department and in the intensive care unit. Nurses in the ICU and the ER perform some of the same skills.†¦show more content†¦Such tasks include, administering medications, like Morphine, that may lower the respiratory drive of patients who are already struggling to breathe. Nurses in the critical care setting will have a more complex set of skills than most nurses. These nurses are constantly dealing with ventilator systems, sensitive drains, and unstable patients. They administer highly potent drugs on a daily basis. Critical care nurses have to be quick in the event of an emergency, but also have to thoroughly think about what they are doing and effects the medications they are giving will have on their patients. Martin states that â€Å"Nurses must recognize that the overall goal of care (or treatment goal) is specifically related to a patient’s values and quality-of-life preferences and should not be confused with daily goals, care plans, and treatment tasks,† (Martin, 2010, p. 69). This is a hard line to ride in assuring individualized and holistic care to every patient. The positions held by critical care nurses and emergency room nurses differ somewhat. While critical care nurses are mostly taking care of very ill patients, emergency room nurses encounter a variety of illnesses at different stages. ER nurses have the daunting responsibility to decide which patient is â€Å"most critical† and needs to be seen immediately, but also know that the other patients are sick and can’t wait all day and night just to be seen. These nurses know that saving lives really is part of their job. They

Friday, May 8, 2020

Movie Review - the Kings Speech Essay - 1161 Words

Movie Critique for The King’s Speech I watched The King’s Speech for my movie critique at home. This film tells the story of Prince Albert, the Duke of York, and how he overcame a life-long speech impediment with the help of Lionel Logue, a speech therapist from Australia. The movie begins with Prince Albert (Colin Firth) attempting to deliver a speech written by his father at the closing ceremony of the Empire Exhibition. We find out that the king has already spoken, as well as Prince Albert’s older brother, the Prince of Wales, and now the Duke of York must speak. As he begins the speech, it becomes clear that he has a debilitating stutter. The scene following shows what I assume is one of many failed treatments by a specialist to†¦show more content†¦There is a montage of Prince Albert and Lionel Logue going through vocal training and we see Prince Albert slowly starting to improve and gain confidence. King George V (Michael Gambon) dies shortly after Prince Albert has commenced treatment, and Albert’s brother is placed on the throne as King Edward VIII. The new king is intent on continuing his relationship with the American divorcà ©e Wallis Simpson (Eve Best), against the wishes of the government. When forced to choose between Mrs. Simpson and retaining his position on the throne, King Edward chooses to abdicate, which elevates Prince Albert to the position of king. The new king realizes he needs the assistance of Lionel Logue now more than ever. In September of 1939, England declares that they are entering war with Nazi Germany, and King George VI (formerly Prince Albert) must address the people of Britain and the Empire. To help himself get through the speech, King George acts as if he’s delivering the speech to Lionel and not the millions of people hearing the speech via radio. The speech is viewed as a great success. We are told that Lionel Logue continued to support King George during his speeches throughout World War II. (The Kings Speech) One of the principals of verbal communication I observed in this movie is Politeness and Gender (DeVito 106). Although the book gives examples of women being more likely to be polite and for men to be indirect, in the movie, the roles are reversed and the Duchess ofShow MoreRelatedGenre Analysis of Movie Review Essay3976 Words   |  16 Pages1. Introduction In recent years, movie class plays a more and more important role in English teaching in China. Most teachers require students to write movie reviews after watching the movie. However, how to write movie review is still remain unclear to students. Some student download a review from the internet, and some write a summary of the movie instead. Genre analysis is a system of analysis by which observations are made on the repeated communicative functions found in genres and on theRead MoreFilm Review of Richard Loncraines Adaptation of William Shakespeares Richard III1221 Words   |  5 PagesFilm Review of Richard Loncraines Adaptation of William Shakespeares Richard III Civil war divides the nation the first caption we see at the onset of this adaptation of Shakespeares Richard III sets the tone for scenes to come later in the movie. It starts by focusing on Shakespeares underlying tone regarding Richard as somewhat an outlandish character to be mocked and amused by. Enter Richard to stab Edward in his war room at Tewkesbury in his tank. He then fills Edward full ofRead MoreWorking As A Contracts Coordinator At Triacle Clinical Services1352 Words   |  6 Pagesopponent’s confidence of the firm. 2. Please select one of our practice areas and identify a current legal issue or legislative change which has interested you. Why is this important for our clients in this practice area? - 250 This year’s Queen’s Speech has outlined Government’s plans to introduce the Neighbourhood Planning and Infrastructure Bill which might affect Bircham Dyson Bell’s Planning and Infrastructure team. Alongside other improvements, the Bill will establish the National InfrastructureRead MoreFilm Festival At Antelope Valley College3497 Words   |  14 Pagesthis situation. This assignment also gave me the opportunity to reassess the validity of some films that I thought I had liked but upon second analysis, might not hold in such high regard. In the end the films I chose are Juno, High Noon, The King’s Speech, Exit Through the Gift Shop, Dr. Strangelove or: How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love the Bomb, and Apocalypse Now. The Lancaster and the Antelope Valley area in general is known for its’ highest Veterans per capita. The town frequently tipsRead MoreThe Final Project : Being Black Essay1674 Words   |  7 Pagesconversation when societal issues with the police, judicial system and family deterioration. Blacks are a large minority and while they have been surpassed by the number of Hispanics within the U.S., it is still has its own subculture known for its speech, music, food, style, Black Entertainment Television (BET), literature and art. The denial of white culture is difficult to avoid when reality is studied. In the book, Lifting the White Veil, Jeff Hitchcock explains that blacks believe in expressionRead MoreAfrican American Civil Rights Act2723 Words   |  11 Pageslevel is to prevent race from appearing as a suitable indicator that self-interested agents would take into account in making a whole range of decisions. Only this would lead to the achievement of a â€Å"colour-blind† society, in fact one of Martin Luther King’s great hopes for the post-Civil Rights Movement age in America. Conversely, this very â€Å"colour-blind† society underpinned the neocoservatists rejection of the ideals of Affirmative action. Quinn, Eithne. Closing Doors: Hollywood, Affirmative actionRead MoreLion King vs. Hamlet2415 Words   |  10 Pagestransformation†¦ †¦Draw him on to pleasures, and to gather,   So much as from occasion you may glean QUEEN. For the supply and profit of our hope,      Your visitation shall receive such thanks   As fits a kings remembrance. (2.2.3-5, 15-16, 24-26) The hyenas were also servants to scar, used to kill Simba. In the movie it was shown that the hyenas were just too stupid to complete the murder of Simba. In Hamlet, Claudius hired Rosencrantz and Guildenstern to transport hamlet to England to be killed. Hamlet wasRead MoreThe Struggle Of The World War II On The Film The Owl / Hollywood Vision 2701 Words   |  11 Pagesdiminish racial tensions which not only provided the Axis fuel for its propaganda engine but also could weaken wartime cohesion. Overall, as the OWIs â€Å"stress was on unity.† P85 Andrew Falk reinforces this principle using an OWI Script review of Battle Hymn. The review states â€Å"the fact that slavery existed in this country is certainly something which belongs to the past and which we wish to forget at this time when unity of all races and creeds is all-important† . In 1944, the release of the documentaryRead MoreThe Road Through The Wall By Shirley Jackson1897 Words   |  8 Pagesthe following year won second prize in a poetry contest. Jackson began a literary journey, Spectre, with Stanley Edgar Hyman and was in a romantic relationship with him as well. In 1940, the same year she graduated, with a dual major in English and speech, she married Stanley Hyman. The first of her four children, Laurence, was born in 1942 which is the same time she began to have her stories published. Two years later in 1944, she was chosen for Best American Short Stories for â€Å"Come Dance with MeRead MorePoverty and the American Dream4620 Words   |  19 Pagessource of depressions, bankruptcies, and wars. It has also been the driving force behind civil rights, human rights, and poor people’s campaigns. Martin Luther King Jr. in his famous â€Å"I have a dream† speech in the March on Washington saw the American as one that included people of all races. King’s idea of the American dream was for a nation allegedly built on the fabric of liberty and justice. This American Dream sought a nation that would be bold enought to abolish unjust laws and practices. In

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Iq Eq, Intelligence and Cognitive Intelligence Free Essays

A Assessment Name: Cognitive intelligence and Emotional Intelligence in Modern organisations â€Å"Intelligence is an abstract concept for whose definition continues to evolve with modernity, these days it refers to a variety of mental capabilities, including the ability to reason, plan, solve problems, think abstractly, comprehend complex ideas, learn quickly, and learn from experience as well as the potential to do so† (Bonnies Strickland, 2nd,2001). This essay will be a discussion on what cognitive intelligence and emotional intelligence are, how they both represent intelligence, and how they play a role within an organisation through their strengths and limitations. This essay will discuss the recent popularity of emotional intelligence and that cognitive intelligence is not essentially the main predictor for organisational behaviour in modern organisations. We will write a custom essay sample on Iq Eq, Intelligence and Cognitive Intelligence or any similar topic only for you Order Now Cognitive intelligence generally can be referred to IQ tests or General Mental Ability (GMA) to name a few and is defined as â€Å"the general efficacy of intellectual processes† (Ackerman, Beier, Boyle, 2005, as cited in Cote Miners). Results in genetic behaviour points to beyond doubt that GMA or IQ has a strong genetic background, although heritability has shown the increase of GMA with age (Bouchard, 1998: Bouchard, McGue, 1998 as cited in Schmidt 2004). Cote and Miners 2006 believed cognitive intelligence also demonstrates as task performance based and is in relation to the organisational citizenship behaviour (OCB), this is then reflected to the organisations activities, achievement and objectives. Since the end of World War 1 measures of GMA have been used in the recruiting and hiring of employees (Yerkes, 1921 as cited in Schmidt, 2004), though the most popular GMA tests still in modern society is the Wonderlic Personnel Test. The strengths of GMA IQ tests are that they have been used as a predictor in personnel selection for over 80 years and have substantial evidence supporting it as a strong predictor of job performance in organisations. Schmidt has stated that GMA is positively linked to several life outcomes such as the level of education and the income of adult. Studies have been carried out on the effectiveness of GMA in relation to occupational level, according to Shmidt 2004; these include cross-sectional studies and longitudinal studies. Shmidt also stated that cross-sectional studies relied on people’s rankings of the occupational level of different occupations, similarities between the mean ratings across these studies excluding the regard of age, country of origin or social class. These studies concluded that mean GMA scores increased with occupational level, so if GMA score was high for an individual they would find it harder to enter higher occupational levels. This suggests that having a lower GMA rating was a requirement for a higher job occupation (Schmidt, 2004). Longitudinal studies focussed on the prediction of occupational fulfilment later in life by the measurement of GMA scores in the early part of life (Schmidt, 2004). Wilk, Desmarais and Sackett 1995 used the results from the National Longitudinal survey, in which young adults were tested over a 5 year period to measure GMA, these studies predicted the hierarchy of occupational level (as cited in Shmidt, 2004). This meant if the GMA score was- high they were most likely to move into a higher complexity job, where as if their score was low they were most likely to move down into a less complex job (Schmidt, 2004). However, limitations are known for GMA testing through certain literature has led to the conclusion that GMA may not be as well understood, this can be drawn from the research conducted on GMA’s constructs and measures as well as its moral judgements (Viswesvaran Ones, 2003). An example of this is the question of the group differences of the results and also the grounds of GMA being not good (enough) predictor (Goldstein, Zedeck Goldstein as cited in Viswesvaran Ones 2003). Analogy has been used from psychological testing literature that underlines GMA’s role in real life situations and environments (Reeve Hakel: as cited in Viswesvaran Ones, 2003). There are points of criticism that revolves around GMA; firstly is central criticism this is seen in articles by Goldstein et all, and it validates GMA for low real-life predicaments. Also it is seen that GMA tests should be acknowledged on the terminology used as some words can be seen as racist or fascist, words like discrimination and adverse can impact bias or unfair results (Viswesvaran Ones, 2003). It has been belief that cognitive attuned staff give modern organisations the competitive advantage in the organisational domain this is due with the cognitive ability to process technical, numerical and vast amounts of information (Schmidt Hunter, 1998. 2000; Michaels Handfield- Jones and Axelrod, 2001, as cited in Cote Miners, 2006). Although, the limitations of one possessing cognitive ability alone and very minimal if any emotional intelligence can result in a poor performance rate if one is to completely rely on only skills that are cognitive in the work place ( Cherniss, Goleman Bennis, 2003). Recently theorists have suggested that one’s intelligence does not only exist of cognitive intelligence, but also a grave amount of interpersonal and emotional intelligence. In modern management, one of the most proactive concerns is that of emotions related to performance of organisations (Cote Miners, 2006). Emotional intelligence has been discussed as a new predictor that is non-cognitive in relation to organisational performance and was popularized by Daniel Goleman in 1995 (Goleman, 1998 as cited in Cote Miners, 2006). Emotional intelligence is defined as â€Å"a set of abilities that includes the abilities to perceive emotions in self and in others, use these emotions to facilitate performance, understand emotions and emotional knowledge, and regulate emotions in the self and in others† (Cote Miners, 2006). Strengths of EI is correlated to the limitations of cognitive intelligence, as stated before people who score high in GMA tests can do poorly in organisations and social relations (Cherniss, 2010). An example of this would be the syndrome of Asperger’s. EI can influence job performance with the competencies of self-control, empathy, integrity, social skills, reliability, conscientiousness and motivation (Cherniss, 2010). In organisation behavioural perspective, EI can assist individuals with low GMA scores to manage their impressions well and in turn receive high performance ratings. This can be achieved by the development of links to co-workers who can provide assistance and can enrich learning- potential to that individual which than can lead to a higher level of occupation (Mehra, Kilduff Brass 2001 as cited in Cote Miners, 2006). According to Mayer and Salovey’s model, there are four main areas on EI: Identifying emotions, Using emotions, Understanding emotions and managing emotions. This model was the only model in which was supported by a confirmatory factor and measures by desirable psychometric properties (Cote Miners, 2006). Limitations of Emotion intelligence is the dearth of studies which relates to job performance thus, is the relation of criticisms of the ‘scientific status’ of emotional intelligence in organisational behaviour (Becker, 2003; Landy, 2005, as cited in Cote Miners, 2006). Barret and colleagues referred to emotional intelligence as â€Å"the Madison Avenue approach to science and professional practice†, he implies that the increase awareness of EI relates to the outspread of its nature which contrasts the scientific evidence (Cote Miners, 2006). Studies have suggested that there is no relation or consistency between job performance and emotional intelligence, specifying on particular tasks as academic performance (Petrides, Frederickson, and Furnham, 2004, as cited in Cote Miners, 2006). The display of competencies of emotional intelligence such as being empathetic, affiliated, highly self-aware and agreeable is not beneficial of being an effective leader (Antonakis, 2003, as cited in Pratt, Douglas, Ferris, Ammeter, and Buckley, 2003). Also, often the high need of affiliation for those requiring can place importance on individual interests rather than the organisations success (Antonakis, 2003, as cited in Pratt, Douglas, Ferris, Ammeter, and Buckley, 2003). Also, disperses of high emotional occurrences in the organisation setting, with that the concern of the negative feelings towards others could be misinterpreted. Therefore, recognising an individual’s emotions at all times is not beneficial to active and effective leadership qualities. Psychological ability defined by Wedeck as â€Å"the ability to judge correctly the feelings, moods, motivations of individual†, which can be incorporated by that of general intelligence (Cote Miners, 2006). Thus, because emotional and cognitive intelligence both represent that of general intelligence though in separate content domains, they may be associated with each other but would not correspond perfectly. However, several organisations have incorporated EI and GMA, IQ into their employee development programs also business schools have added EI to their curriculums (Boyatzis, Stubbs and Taylor, 2002 as cited in Cote Miners, 2006). Most mining organisations such as (Anglo American) also have incorporated aptitude and psychological tests which include both EI and GMA, as part- of their application to job recruitment. Goleman, Mayer, Salovey and Caruso have all argued that both emotional intelligence and Cognitive intelligence make linear yet independent contributions to job performance (Cote miners, 2006). By the combination of emotional and cognitive intelligence, people can receive higher performance in organisations. Concluding, this essay has discussed the strengths and limitations of both cognitive intelligence and emotional intelligence in relation to GMA, IQ and EI testing within the organisational level. The essay has also viewed cognitive intelligence and emotional intelligence operating in modern organisations either individually or incorporated together. Cognitive intelligence displays specific abilities in task and problem solving, strategic and analytical aspects of intelligence. Emotional intelligence demonstrates proficiency in producing the components of empathy, self-regulation and self-awareness in an organisational structure. Haslam (2007) summarised that many theorists discuss that one’s intelligence does not only compose of cognitive abilities but also an array of multiple interpersonal and emotional intelligences. References Cote` S, Miners C. H. (2006). Emotional Intelligence, Cognitive Intelligence and Job Performance. Administrative Science Quarterly, 51(1), 1-28. Anglo American. Retrieved from: http://www. angloamerican. com. au/careers/employment- programmes. aspx Cherniss, C. (2010). Emotional intelligence: Toward clarification of a concept. Industrial and Organizational Psychology,  3, 110-126. Haslam, N. (2007). Introduction to Personality and Intelligence. London, UK: SAGE Publication. Inc. Roberts, R. D. , Matthews, G. Zeinder, M. (2010). Emotional intelligence: Muddling through theory and measurement. Industrial and Organizational Psychology,  3, 140-144. Schmidt, F. L. , Hunter, J. (2004). General mental ability in the world of work: Occupational attainment and job performance. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,  86(1), 162-173. Viswesvaran, C. Ones, D. S. (2002). Agreements and disagreements on the role of general mental ability (GMA) in industrial, work, and organizational psychology. Human Performance,  15(1/2), 211-231. How to cite Iq Eq, Intelligence and Cognitive Intelligence, Essay examples

Monday, April 27, 2020

LEGAL POINTS OF VIEW Essays - Medical Ethics, Euthanasia

LEGAL POINTS OF VIEW PRO Life for a human being is not merely about breathing or having a pulse. A human life is about pursuing the goals and values that, according to one's own judgment, will make one's life enjoyable and worth living. In dire circumstances in which a person is unable to live the kind of life that he or she regards as worth livingand only the individual can make such a determinationit may be the case that remaining alive is a fate worse than death. Life is not merely about quantity; it is also, and more importantly, about quality. In a country founded on the rights to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness, most states nevertheless forbid a person to exercise these rights when the pursuit of happiness becomes impossible. This means a person in personal agony with no hope for a future of happiness legally must remain alive and suffer. That is a moral disgrace. As Maynard wrote in a widely publicized CNN.com op-ed: "I would not tell anyone else that he or she should choose death with dignity. My question is: Who has the right to tell me that I don't deserve this choice?" physician-assisted suicide as another "choice" issue, like abortion. Why isn't this issue about someone's right to decide his or her fate at the end of life? My argument is really a social-justice-oriented argument against the legalization of assisted suicide in our current health care context. And those last words are really important: in our current health care context. I think one important piece may be the number of uninsured Americans that we have in the country. The recent numbers that came out from the U.S. Census Bureau saw the number of Americans without health insurance rise to 15.8 percent - or 47 million people in our country. What that means - and what I argue - is that legalizing assisted suicide in the context where we have this kind of inequity in our health care system actually puts those who are uninsured at risk for reaching for assisted suicide for a financial necessity or out of some duress. AGAINST that lack of universal health care increases the risk that legalizing physician-assisted suicide will ultimately lead to abuses? 61 percent of whites with incomes over $100,000 supporting physician-assisted suicide, but you have 78 percent of minorities with incomes under $50,000 opposing assisted suicide. That argument goes like this: Regardless of whether or not - in the abstract - we could justify capital punishment for certain heinous crimes, in the current context of our society, which is shot through with racism and shot through with financial problems of representation in the courts, we can't justly implement it. Let's assume that in the next few years the United States moves from its current health care system to a European-style universal care model and everyone has access to health care. That takes out of play your big concern. At that point, should people still have qualms about physician-assisted suicide? One of the most interesting comments I found was by Dr. Rob Jonquiere, head of the Dutch Voluntary Euthanasia Society. He is a very strong advocate for these rights at the end of life in the context of the Netherlands, but when asked about what the U.S. ought to do, he basically said no. He said that in the U.S., where so many people are uninsured, you could not defend such a law. And this is from someone who is a staunch advocate for the right to assisted suicide and euthanasia at the end of life. And I think that really does set the floor below which we shouldn't go in the U.S In your book you take liberals and progressives to task for ignoring the role that religion can play in this discussion. Why do you think the left has excluded religious considerations on an issue like doctor-assisted suicide? Religious views got dismissed in the debate in a couple of ways that I find really unfortunate. The first one was by using language like, "You're imposing your religious beliefs on me on this issue." If you listen to the talking points of many of the supporters of Oregon's Death with Dignity Act and physician-assisted suicide, this is

Thursday, March 19, 2020

Free Essays on Women In Palestine And Their Rights

When will this all end? My knowledge about the world has always been based on how the United States functions and the rights that are given to everyone and that’s including me, a woman. I never thought of myself lower than anyone else and especially a male. Everything has to do with how I was raised and where I was raised. Palestinian women don’t have the same gender privileges that I have. They have to suffer with having to be raised in a country where gender is a big issue and masculinity is what powers. This paper will mainly focus on the violence and the civil and political rights of women in Palestine. The dominance of male control in Palestine is currently threatening the progression of women rising above the constraints of patriarchy. It is however important to recognize specific cultural and religious practices of gender hierarchy that are accepted by Palestinian women. While keeping this in mind it is of paramount importance to keep sight of the consequences of abusing these cultura l practices at the expense of women’s liberation and development. If we as a global community can acknowledge the adverse effects of patriarchal rule and appreciate the fundamental role of women in society, the succession of women will most certainly follow. The consequences of the subordination of women have left perhaps no woman un-scared by its devastating effects. Unfortunately there are numerous examples that highlight the problematic consequences of patriarchal supremacy. One of the numerous examples that highlight this patriarchal supremacy is the violent crimes towards women. This section of the report deals with the connection between political and social violence in Palestinian society and the manner in which each of these forms of violence interplays with the other. There is also a focus on the forms of violence directed against women at the societal level and within the family, as well as a description of the laws, policies and... Free Essays on Women In Palestine And Their Rights Free Essays on Women In Palestine And Their Rights When will this all end? My knowledge about the world has always been based on how the United States functions and the rights that are given to everyone and that’s including me, a woman. I never thought of myself lower than anyone else and especially a male. Everything has to do with how I was raised and where I was raised. Palestinian women don’t have the same gender privileges that I have. They have to suffer with having to be raised in a country where gender is a big issue and masculinity is what powers. This paper will mainly focus on the violence and the civil and political rights of women in Palestine. The dominance of male control in Palestine is currently threatening the progression of women rising above the constraints of patriarchy. It is however important to recognize specific cultural and religious practices of gender hierarchy that are accepted by Palestinian women. While keeping this in mind it is of paramount importance to keep sight of the consequences of abusing these cultura l practices at the expense of women’s liberation and development. If we as a global community can acknowledge the adverse effects of patriarchal rule and appreciate the fundamental role of women in society, the succession of women will most certainly follow. The consequences of the subordination of women have left perhaps no woman un-scared by its devastating effects. Unfortunately there are numerous examples that highlight the problematic consequences of patriarchal supremacy. One of the numerous examples that highlight this patriarchal supremacy is the violent crimes towards women. This section of the report deals with the connection between political and social violence in Palestinian society and the manner in which each of these forms of violence interplays with the other. There is also a focus on the forms of violence directed against women at the societal level and within the family, as well as a description of the laws, policies and...

Tuesday, March 3, 2020

Free Exercise Clause Definition

Free Exercise Clause Definition The Free Exercise Clause is the part of the First Amendment that reads: Congress shall make no law ... prohibiting the free exercise (of religion) ... The Supreme Court has, of course, never interpreted this clause  in a completely literal way. Murder is illegal, for example, regardless of whether it is committed for religious reasons. Interpretations of the Free Exercise Clause   There are two interpretations of the Free Exercise Clause: The first freedoms interpretation  holds that Congress may restrict religious activity only if it has a compelling interest in doing so. This means that Congress may not, for example, ban the hallucinatory drug peyote that is used by some Native  American traditions because it has no compelling interest in doing so.  The nondiscrimination interpretation holds that Congress may restrict religious activity as long as the intent of a law is not to restrict religious activity. Under this interpretation, Congress can ban peyote as long as the law is not specifically written to target a specific religious practice. Interpretation largely  becomes a non-issue when religious practices stay within the confines of the law. The First Amendment clearly protects an American’s right to worship as he chooses when the practices of his religion are in no way illegal. It’s typically not illegal to confine a venomous snake in a cage at a service, for example, provided all wildlife licensing requirements are met. It might be illegal to turn that venomous snake loose among a congregation, resulting in a worshiper being struck and subsequently dying. The question becomes whether the worship leader who turned the snake loose is guilty of murder or – more likely – manslaughter. An argument can be made that the leader is protected by the First Amendment because he did not set the snake free with the intent of harming the worshiper but rather as part of a religious rite.   Challenges to the Free Exercise Clause   The First Amendment has been challenged numerous times over the years when crimes are unintentionally committed in the course of practicing religious beliefs.  Employment Division v. Smith, decided by the Supreme Court in 1990, remains one of the more noteworthy examples of a bona fide legal challenge to the first freedoms interpretation of the law. The court had previously held that the burden of proof fell to the governing entity to establish that it had a compelling interest in prosecuting even if it meant infringing upon the individual’s religious practices. Smith changed that premise when the court ruled that a governing entity does not have that burden if the law that was violated applies to the general population and does not target the faith or its practitioner per se.   This decision was tested three years later in a 1993 decision in Church of the Lukumi Babalu Aye v. City of Hialeah. This time, it held that because the law in question – one that involved animal sacrifice – specifically affected the rites of a certain religion, the government did indeed have to establish a compelling interest.

Sunday, February 16, 2020

Literature Review on Group Creativity Theory Essay

Literature Review on Group Creativity Theory - Essay Example rt in their field and have strong knowledge to properly guide the design team and create an environment that is conducive to creativity, innovation and stimulation of new ideas (Paulus & Nijstad, 2003). In other words, the art director serves as a project manager, designer and coordinator of all design activities in order to achieve the best possible end-product for the customer. Without a strong art director, a design team may not have clear direction or have the tools necessary to instill creativity and innovation for all projects. Perhaps the most difficult challenge for the art director is to implement a creative environment while balancing the challenges of group creativity theory and all of the variables associated with group dynamics. There are many external, social and psychological factors that can impact a design team’s ability to think creatively. Furthermore, the politics of a creative team can impact the group creativity because individuals begin to compete over whose ideas are more creative. One issue that can arise is an over-abundance of ideas that can actually reduce the positive creativity that is desired within a group collectivity situation (Goncalo & Staw, 2006). In this situation, it is highly important for the art director to utilize the control and organizational power awarded by the position to continue to harbor good ideas while reducing the opportunity for too many ideas to have a negative impact on group creativity. In the end, a choice must be made and the group must push forw ard to produce a strong website that is both creative and to the customer’s approval. Due to socio-psychological issues stemming from criticism in the workplace, there is often a serious issue that confronts group creativity. Many employees shut down their creativity when their own work has been criticized, in which case, directors often avoid criticizing work which negatively impacts the quality and abundance of creativity (De Dren et al., n.d.).